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 General Information

 teaching

 Activities - Research

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 Scripts and others

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ACCES RESERVE 

 

 

Main Activities and Research themes

 

 

Collaborations - Financed Projects

 - SLBL (Vowel-less SyLlaBLes at the interface of phonology, phonetics, and psycholinguistics) :
  ==> Financed ANR project under the direction of Rachid Ridouane (2009 - 2011)


The syllable is a fundamental unit of prosodic structure which has always been a key concept in linguistics. It has achieved a considerable success in phonology, and has, for example, played a major role in establishing Optimality Theory, a dominant paradigm in the field of phonology (see Féry and van de Vijver 2003). Current research continues, however, to raise many basic questions concerning the nature of this unit, the relation it has to measurable physical properties, and the role it may play in cognitive encoding of speech. One reason why the syllable has proved so elusive is in part related to its structure. In the majority of the world languages, the distribution between the nucleus of a syllable (i.e. the obligatory central element in a syllable) and its margins is almost always correlated with the lexical distinction between sonorants (mostly vowels) and obstruents. Hence, there is some doubt on whether syllable nucleus must be defined by its intrinsic properties as a segment (a vowel, a sonorant), its properties relative to the surrounding segments (“peak” of sonority), or some other property (e.g., specific phasing relationships).
Tashlhiyt Berber is a very welcome exception to the dominant trend of clear nucleus syllables. In this language, it is claimed that the entire set of its consonantal inventory may alternate between nuclear and non-nuclear positions, making syllables of the shape [tz], [tf], or [tk] quite common (Elmedlaoui 1985, Dell and Elmedlaoui 1985, 1988, Boukous 1987, Zec 1988, 1995, Prince and Smolensky 1993, Jebbour 1995, 1996ab, Clements 1997, Ridouane, forthcoming). The reason why any consonant, even a voiceless stop, may act as a syllable peak is that this language allows words without vowels (e.g. [kk] “take (a road), [sskcmtn trglttn gh lqq°bbt] “bring them and lock them inside the cupola”). The existence of vowel-less syllables raises questions of the utmost theoretical interest, which are bound to provide important results on the organization and malleability of the phonology/phonetics system. Within a Laboratory Phonology approach, we plan to handle issues related to the psycholinguistic reality and the phonetic manifestation of such syllables. We adopt the framework of Articulatory Phonology (Browman and Goldstein 1995) in handling issues on the phonetic manifestation of the syllable, because this framework provides a way of thinking about syllable structure that leads to testable hypotheses. There is also a need for experimental psycholinguistic studies providing metalinguistic data on naive listeners' intuitions about the syllable and syllabification. The only sources of evidence for how Tashlhiyt utterances may be represented in listeners' mind in terms of syllables are versification (Dell & Elmedlaoui 2002) and some native phonologists' intuitions (Elmedlaoui, Boukous, Jebbour, Ridouane).



 - DesPhoAPady (Acoustico-Phonetic description of dysarthric speech) :
  ==> Financed ANR project under the direction of Cécile Fougeron
(2009 - 2011)

Speech production involves a precise, highly complex and structured neuro-muscular activity. Moving an articulator by a tiny fraction of an inch can have important consequences in the production of a sound. Nonetheless, as witnessed by the recent development of large phonetic studies on spontaneous speech, the range of variability in sound production is enormous. Current issues in phonetics and phonology are concerned with the understanding of the range of possible variations and the many factors governing them. These issues address questions related to lexical representations (single or multiple representations, abstract or specified with phonetic details…) and to speech processing and acquisition (how is variation processed). So far, our knowledge about variation in spontaneous speech is partial, but all studies concur to show that variation in normal speech is not random and is part of a complex organization governed by constraints at many linguistic and physiological levels.
Basic tenets of our project rely on the assumption that our understanding of speech production proceeds with
advances in the study of both normal and disordered speech and that a good model has to unify knowledge from both populations. In that respect, observing the types and range of variation linked to a motoric deficit, such as in dysarthrias, is of the utmost interest for a comprehensive model of speech variation. Dysarthria is a group of speech disorders resulting from neurological impairments of speech motor control. Substantial variations occur in dysarthric speech due to a deficit in the spatio-temporal execution of speech movements that affects different levels of speech production (respiratory, laryngeal and supralaryngeal). Some of the speech variations of dysarthric speakers show broad similarities with non-pathological variations when they involve changes in movement amplitude, speed, and coordination of the speech gestures (e.g. reduction of segment articulation, variations in temporal organization of the speech chain, variation in voice quality, dysfluencies…). However, our experience with dysarthric patients has led us to conclude that dysarthric speech patterns differ from normal variation not only in quantity—pathological variations are more frequent and more intense—but also in quality—some variations are typical to dysarthric speech. While some progress has been made on the characterization of the acoustico-phonetic properties of dysarthric speech, our knowledge is still scattered. A systematic acoustic description of dysarthric French speakers, as the one presented here, is clearly needed. By considering speech variation as the phenotype of the crossroad between normal and disordered speech, this project will therefore have theoretical implications on the understanding of the range and limitations of patterns of variability in normal speech.
Our consortium provides an outstanding blend of competences in phonetics, clinical phonetics, clinical practice and speech ingeneers. This multi-disciplinary collaboration brings together the expertise,  echnologies and approaches required to cover all the aspects of the proposed project, thus assuring its success.

 

- Data Base constitutions and inquiries

  ==> Financed SHS project under the direction of Serge Fleury (2004 - 2005)

  ==> Financed CNRS project under the direction of Michel Jacobson (2006 - ...)

  Member of " Projet Innovant 2004-2005 " : Normalisation Propositions for a numeric database at the ED268. (avec S. Fleury (SYLED/CLA²T), M. Jacobson (CNRS-LACITO), A. Salem (SYLED/CLA²T), P. Samvelian, P. Renaud). Have a look at the Website.

  Membre du centre de compétences dans le domaine de la gestion de corpus oraux en linguistique (candidature acceptée en décembre 2005). Proposition conjointe du LACITO et du LPP.  http://crdo.risc.cnrs.fr/exist/crdo/

   Membre du RTP « CATCOD » : comment cataloguer – comment coder
http://icar.ens-lsh.fr/wiki/index.php/Catalogage_et_codage_de_corpus_oraux

 



 

- Language Identification and large corpora analyses :
  ==> Financed ANR project under the direction of Martine Adda-Decker (2002 - 2005)

  Member of the research group : Modelisation for the IDentification of Languages

(with E. Geoffrois (DGA), F. Antoine (DGA), J. Vaissière (LPP - ILPGA), J.S. Liénard (LIMSI-PS), P. Boula de Mareuil (LIMSI-PS), M. Adda-Decker, (LIMSI-TLP), J.L. Gauvain (LIMSI-TLP), L. Lamel (LIMSI-TLP), M. Candea (Paris3 Sorbonne Nouvelle) …)

Gathering linguistic and engineering competences, this four-year financed project aimed at answering the following questions : which phonetic, phonotactic and prosodic informations are used by humans and computers for language identification ?

 


- Vocal folds' investigation :
  ==> Financed ATIP project under the direction of Nathalie Henrich (2005 - 2007)

  Interpreting the derivative of the Electro-Glotto-Graphic signal relying on high speed camera visualisation (2000/4000 images/s). (with N. Henrich (ICP-INPG))

Member of the research group ATIP Jeunes Chercheurs 2005 du département SHS : « Exploration of source-filter interaction phenomena in human phonation ». With X. Pelorson; A. Van Hirtum (ICP-INPG); P. Badin; M. Castellengo; M. Garnier; (LAM) Joe Wolfe (U. New South Wales); Lise Crevier-Buchman (LPP).

Collective creation of a website still "in-progress" that offers an introduction to electroglottography, software, and recordings. http://voiceresearch.free.fr/egg/.

For more information, please have a look at Alexis Michaud's Web page : http://ed268.univ-paris3.fr/lpp/pages/EQUIPE/michaud/

 



 


 

  PhD Thesis in Phonetics (defended 13th of december 2005)

 

subject : Perceptual, physiological and acoustic aspects of different prosodic categories in French (summary) - directed by Jacqueline Vaissière

Zone de Texte: §	Phonétique expérimentale / Physiologie (collaboration avec L. Crevier, S. Hans, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou) : travail de thèse dans le domaine de la prosodie articulatoire : dans quelle mesure l’articulation d’un segment est fonction de sa position dans différentes catégories prosodiques ? Utilisation des mesures perceptives, physiologiques et acoustiques simultanées.

 

2001-2005

 




 

  Organising Committees

 

   Organising committee of the Rencontres Jeunes Chercheurs en Parole 2006

Organising committee of the summer school in Corsica (5-10 june 2006) : VPL

 Organising committee of MIDL 2004 à Paris, on november 28-29th in Paris

  Organising committee of the Rencontres de l’Ecole Doctorale 2001, 2003 and 2004.

  Organising committee of the journée d’étude sur le FLE on june 21st 2002 in Paris.

 


 

 

 

  Others

 

   Bi-disciplinary Semantics-Phonetics approach "only" , focus sensitivity and the adverb scope : prosodic realisations and semantic status. (with C.Raynal (LaTTICe – Paris7) (2002 - 2004)